Since the beginning of 2020, vehicle manufacturers have been subject to the new Euro 6d type approval. In about 7 weeks it will also come into force for all new registrations. For Swiss nationals, this applies to new vehicles with 1.1.2021 as the date of the customs stamp on import into Switzerland. Only new cars with this emission standard may then be imported.
What is new about the Euro-Norm 6d?
In September 2017, standard 6c replaced the previous measurement procedure NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) – in which the exhaust gas values were determined under laboratory conditions – with the more stringent test bench measurement procedure WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure).
At the same time the Euro-Norm 6d-Temp was introduced. In this standard, exhaust gases are measured using the RDE cycle (Real Driving Emissions). Testing in real operation is intended to ensure compliance with the standards on the road as well. In the test cycles, driving is carried out at higher speeds and for longer periods. In addition, the effects of special equipment and driving situations are also included in the measurement. The Euro-Norm 6d-Temp was an intermediate step – now the Euro-Norm 6d will come into force on 1.1.2021.
Limit values still the same, but different conversion factors
Despite the new analysis method, however, the limits of the Euro 6 standard introduced in September 2017 still apply: In the WLTP measuring method, CO emissions (carbon monoxide) are limited to 500 milligrams per kilometer (mg/km) for a diesel passenger car, while NOx emissions (nitrogen oxides) may not exceed 80 mg/km. For both diesel and gasoline engines, the particulate mass must not exceed 4.5 mg/km. For gasoline engines, CO emissions of a maximum of 1,000 mg/km are prescribed, while NOx emissions may not exceed 60 mg/km.
The difference between the two Euro 6d standards is the conformity factor, i.e. the conversion factor by which the measurement in the RDE procedure may deviate from the test bench results. With Euro 6d-TEMP, a diesel on the road may have 2.1 times the NOx emission compared to the test bench. If the emission in the laboratory is 80 mg/km, it may be 168 on the road. With Euro 6d the factor is only 1.43 – i.e. a maximum of 114.4 mg/km in real operation. For particulate matter, the conformity factor in both cases is 1.5, which also applies to gasoline engines.
By the way: there are no concrete CO2 specifications (carbon dioxide) for Euro 6 and its sub-categories. There is only one target value for the entire fleet of an automobile manufacturer, which is limited to 95 g/km from 2021.
What else is new?
From January 1, 2021, so-called FCM (“Fuel Consumption Monitoring”) will become mandatory for all newly registered cars: all real fuel and energy consumption during the entire driving period must be stored by the vehicle. They can then be read out via the diagnostic interface. The aim is to be able to detect further deviations between test bench measurements and real emissions or consumption.
What influence does the Euro-Norm 6d have?
In addition to the general import restrictions for new cars, the Euro standard is particularly important for international journeys: many European cities have had low emission zones for some time now, which may only be entered with the so-called “environmental badges” – in France Crit’Air Vignette (“certificat qualité de l’air”). Recently, more and more restrictions have also been imposed on certain streets or districts. Failure to comply with these will result in traffic fines.
How do I find out the Euro norm of my vehicle?
If you want to know which Euro-Norm your car complies with, you can find out the emission code of your vehicle in field 72 of your vehicle registration document. The corresponding Euro standard can then be determined using the overview of emission codes from ASTRA. New vehicles should have the emission code B6d for the Euro-Norm 6d.